A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 620 pages of information about A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1.

fulfilment of desires cease and with it rebirth ceases and with it sorrow ceases.  Without false knowledge and attachment, actions cannot produce the bondage of karma that leads to the production of body and its experiences.  With the cessation of sorrow there is emancipation in which the self is divested of all its qualities (consciousness, feeling, willing, etc.) and remains in its own inert state.  The state of mukti according to Nyaya-Vais’e@sika is neither a state of pure knowledge nor of bliss but a state of perfect qualitilessness, in which the self remains in itself in its own purity.  It is the negative state of absolute painlessness in mukti that is sometimes spoken of as being a state of absolute happiness (ananda), though really speaking the state of mukti can never be a state of happiness.  It is a passive state of self in its original and natural purity unassociated with pleasure, pain, knowledge, willing, etc. [Footnote ref 1].

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[Footnote 1:  Nyayamanjari, pp. 499-533.]

CHAPTER IX

MIMA@MSA PHILOSOPHY [Footnote ref 1]

A Comparative Review.

The Nyaya-Vais’e@sika philosophy looked at experience from a purely common sense point of view and did not work with any such monistic tendency that the ultimate conceptions of our common sense experience should be considered as coming out of an original universal (e.g. prak@rti of the Sam@khya).  Space, time, the four elements, soul, etc. convey the impression that they are substantive entities or substances.  What is perceived of the material things as qualities such as colour, taste, etc. is regarded as so many entities which have distinct and separate existence but which manifest themselves in connection with the substances.  So also karma or action is supposed to be a separate entity, and even the class notions are perceived as separate entities inhering in substances.  Knowledge (jnana) which illuminates all things is regarded only as a quality belonging to soul, just as there are other qualities of material objects.  Causation is viewed merely as the collocation of conditions.  The genesis of knowledge is also viewed as similar in nature to the production of any other physical event.  Thus just as by the collocation of certain physical circumstances a jug and its qualities are produced, so by the combination and respective contacts of the soul, mind, sense, and the objects of sense, knowledge (jnana) is produced.  Soul with Nyaya is an inert unconscious entity in which knowledge, etc. inhere.  The relation between a substance and its quality, action, class notion, etc. has also to be admitted as a separate entity, as without it the different entities being without any principle of relation would naturally fail to give us a philosophic construction.

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