The ethical standard.
1. Ethics, as a department of Practice, is defined by its End.
2. The Ethical End is the welfare of society,
realized through rules
of conduct duly enforced.
3. The Rules of Ethics are of two kinds.
The first are imposed under
a penalty. These are Laws proper, or Obligatory Morality.
4. The second are supported by Rewards;
Morality, Merit, Virtue, or Nobleness.
5. The Ethical End, or Morality, as
it has been, is founded partly
in Utility, and partly in Sentiment.
6. The Ethical End is limited, according
to the view taken of Moral
Government, or Authority:—Distinction between Security and
7. Morality, in its essential parts, is
‘Eternal and Immutable;’ in
other parts, it varies with custom.
8. Enquiry as to the kind, of proof that
an Ethical Standard is
susceptible of. The ultimate end of action must be referred to
9. The judgment of Mankind is, with some
qualifications, in favour of
Happiness as the supreme end of conduct.
10. The Ethical end that society is tending to,
is Happiness, or
11. Objections against Utility. I.—Happiness
is not the sole aim of
12. II.—The consequences of actions are beyond calculation.
13. III.—The principle of Utility
contains no motives to seek the
happiness of others.
The moral faculty.
1. Question whether the Moral Faculty be simple or complex.
2. Arguments in favour of its being simple
and intuitive:—First, Our
moral judgments are immediate and instantaneous.
3. Secondly, It is a faculty common to all mankind.
4. Thirdly, It is different from any other mental phenomenon.
5. Replies to these Arguments, and Counter-arguments:—–First;
Immediateness of operation is no proof of an innate origin.
6. Secondly, The alleged similarity of
men’s moral judgments holds
only in a limited degree. Answers given by the advocates of an
Innate sentiment, to the discrepancies.
7. Thirdly, Moral right and wrong is not
an indivisible property, but
an extensive Code of regulations.
8. Fourthly, Intuition is not sufficient to settle debated questions.
9. Fifthly, It is possible to analyze the
Moral Faculty:—Estimate of
the operation of (1) Prudence, (2) Sympathy, and (3) the Emotions
10. The peculiar attribute of Rightness
arises from the institution
of Government or Authority.