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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 195 pages of information about Early BritainRoman Britain.

FOOTNOTES: 

[Footnote 1:  Published by the Record Office, 1848.]

[Footnote 2:  Published by the Royal Academy of Berlin.  Vol.  VII. contains the Romano-British Inscriptions.]

[Footnote 3:  His later books only survive in the epitome of Xiphilinus, a Byzantine writer of the 13th century.]

[Footnote 4:  See p. 171.]

[Footnote 5:  See p. 256.]

[Footnote 6:  In the British (?) village near Glastonbury the bases of shed antlers are found hafted for mallets.]

[Footnote 7:  This name is simply given for archaeological convenience, to indicate that these aborigines were non-Aryan, and perhaps of Turanian affinity.]

[Footnote 8:  Skeat, however, traces “ogre” (the Spanish “ogro”) to the Latin Orcus.]

[Footnote 9:  The latest excavations (1902) prove Stonehenge to be a Neolithic erection.  No metal was found, but quantities of flint implements, broken in the arduous task of dressing the great Sarsen monoliths.  The process seems to have been that still used for granite, viz. to cut parallel channels on the rough surface, and then break and rub down the ridges between.  This was done by the use of conical lumps of Sarsen stone, weighing from 20 to 60 lbs., several of which were discovered bearing traces of usage, both in pounding and rubbing.  The monoliths examined were found to be thus tooled accurately down to the very bottom, 8 or 9 feet below ground.  At Avebury the stones are not dressed.]

[Footnote 10:  Sarsen is the same word as Saracen, which in mediaeval English simply means foreign (though originally derived from the Arabic sharq = Eastern).  Whence the stones came is still disputed.  They may have been boulders deposited in the district by the ice-drift of the Glacial Epoch.]

[Footnote 11:  Professor Rhys assigns 600 B.C. as the approximate date of the first Gadhelic arrivals, and 200 B.C. as that of the first Brythonic.]

[Footnote 12:  Whether or no this word is (as some authorities hold) derived from the Welsh Prutinach (=Picts) rather than from the Brythons, it must have reached Aristotle through Brythonic channels, for the Gadhelic form is Cruitanach.]

[Footnote 13:  A certain amount of British folk-lore was brought back to Greece, according to Plutarch (’De defect. orac.’ 2), by the geographer Demetrias of Tarsus about this time.  He refers to the cavern of sleeping heroes, so familiar in our mediaeval legends.]

[Footnote 14:  The word is said to be derived from the root kash, “shine.”  Some authorities, however, maintain that it came into Sanscrit from the Greek.]

[Footnote 15:  ‘Hist.’  III. 112.]

[Footnote 16:  See p. 48.]

[Footnote 17:  For a full notice of Pytheas see Elton, ’Origins of English History,’ pp. 13-75.  See also Tozer’s ‘Ancient Geography,’ chap. viii.]

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