gods into daemons. 22. Judaism. Recognizes
foreign gods at first. Elohim
, but they get
degraded in time. Beelzebub, Belial, etc
23. Early Christians treat gods of Greece in
the same way. St. Paul’s view. 24.
The Church, however, did not stick to its colours
in this respect. Honesty not the best policy.
A policy of compromise. 25. The oracles.
Sosthenion and St. Michael. Delphi. St.
Gregory’s saintliness and magnanimity. Confusion
of pagan gods and Christian saints. 26. Church
in North Europe. Thonar, etc
., are devils,
but Balda gets identified with Christ. 27. Conversion
of Britons. Their gods get turned into fairies
rather than devils. Deuce. Old Nick. 28.
Subsequent evolution of belief. Carlyle’s
Abbot Sampson. Religious formulae of witchcraft.
29. The Reformers and Catholics revive the old
accusations. The Reformers only go half-way in
scepticism. Calfhill and Martiall. 30. Catholics.
Siege of Alkmaar. Unfortunate mistake of a Spanish
prisoner. 31. Conditions that tended to vivify
the belief during Elizabethan era. 32. The new
freedom. Want of rules of evidence. Arthur
Hacket and his madnesses. Sneezing. Cock-crowing.
Jackdaw in the House of Commons. Russell and Drake
both mistaken for devils. 33. Credulousness of
people. “To make one danse naked.”
A parson’s proof of transubstantiation. 34.
But the Elizabethans had strong common sense nevertheless.
People do wrong if they set them down as fools.
If we had not learned to be wiser than they, we should
have to be ashamed of ourselves. We shall learn
nothing from them if we don’t try to understand
35. The three heads. 36. (I.) Classification
of devils. Greater and lesser devils. Good
and bad angels. 37. Another classification, not
popular. 38. Names of greater devils. Horribly
uncouth. The number of them. Shakspere’s
devils. 39. (II.) Form of devils of the greater. 40.
Of the lesser. The horns, goggle eyes, and tail.
Scot’s carnal-mindedness. He gets his book
burnt, and written against by James I. 41. Spenser’s
idol-devil. 42. Dramatists’ satire of popular
opinion. 43. Favourite form for appearing in
when conjured. Devils in Macbeth. 44. Powers
of devils. 45. Catholic belief in devil’s
power to create bodies. 46. Reformers deny this,
but admit that he deceives people into believing that
he can do so, either by getting hold of a dead body,
and restoring animation. 47. Or by means of illusion.
48. The common people stuck to the Catholic doctrine.
Devils appear in likeness of an ordinary human being.
49. Even a living one, which was sometimes awkward.
“The Troublesome Raigne of King John.”
They like to appear as priests or parsons. The
devil quoting Scripture. 50. Other human shapes.
51. Animals. Ariel. 52. Puck. 53.
“The Witch of Edmonton.” The devil
on the stage. Flies. Urban Grandier.
Sir M. Hale. 54. Devils as angels. As Christ.