An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 220 pages of information about An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis.

Wash the precipitate until free from sulphates with a warm 1 per cent solution of the di-ammonium phosphate, and then five times with 50 per cent alcohol (Note 4).  Dry the crucible and precipitate for an hour at 105 deg.C., and finally to constant weight (Note 5).  The filtrate should be made alkaline with ammonia and tested for zinc with a few drops of ammonium sulphide, allowing it to stand (Notes 6, 7 and 8).

From the weight of the zinc ammonium phosphate (ZnNH_{4}Po_{4}) calculate the percentage of the zinc (Zn) in the brass.

[Note 1:  The zinc ammonium phosphate is soluble both in acids and in ammonia.  It is, therefore, necessary to precipitate the zinc in a nearly neutral solution, which is more accurately obtained by adding a drop of a litmus solution to the liquid than by the use of litmus paper.]

[Note 2:  The precipitate which first forms is amorphous, and may have a variable composition.  On standing it becomes crystalline and then has the composition ZnNH_{4}Po_{4}.  The precipitate then settles rapidly and is apt to occasion “bumping” if the solution is heated to boiling.  Stirring promotes the crystallization.]

[Note 3:  In a carefully neutralized solution containing a considerable excess of the precipitant, and also ammonium salts, the separation of the zinc is complete after standing four hours.  The ionic changes connected with the precipitation of the zinc as zinc ammonium phosphate are similar to those described for magnesium ammonium phosphate, except that the zinc precipitate is soluble in an excess of ammonium hydroxide, probably as a result of the formation of complex ions of the general character Zn(NH_{3})_{4}^{++}.]

[Note 4:  The precipitate is washed first with a dilute solution of the phosphate to prevent a slight decomposition of the precipitate (as a result of hydrolysis) if hot water alone is used.  The alcohol is added to the final wash-water to promote the subsequent drying.]

[Note 5:  The precipitate may be ignited and weighed as Zn_{2}P_{2}O_{7}, by cautiously heating the porcelain Gooch crucible within a nickel or iron crucible, used as a radiator.  The heating must be very slow at first, as the escaping ammonia may reduce the precipitate if it is heated too quickly.]

[Note 6:  If the ammonium sulphide produced a distinct precipitate, this should be collected on a small filter, dissolved in a few cubic centimeters of dilute nitric acid, and the zinc reprecipitated as phosphate, filtered off, dried, and weighed, and the weight added to that of the main precipitate.]

[Note 7:  It has been found that some samples of asbestos are acted upon by the phosphate solution and lose weight.  An error from this source may be avoided by determining the weight of the crucible and filter after weighing the precipitate.  For this purpose the precipitate may be dissolved in dilute nitric acid, the asbestos washed thoroughly, and the crucible reweighed.]

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