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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 188 pages of information about An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis.

[Note 2:  If the gas passes too rapidly into the absorption apparatus, some carbon dioxide may be carried through, not being completely retained by the absorbents.]

[Note 3:  The essential ionic changes involved in this procedure are the following:  It is assumed that the limestone, which is typified by calcium carbonate, is very slightly soluble in water, and the ions resulting are Ca^{++} and Co_{3}^{—­}.  In the presence of H^{+} ions of the mineral acid, the Co_{3}^{—­} ions form [H_{2}Co_{3}].  This is not only a weak acid which, by its formation, diminishes the concentration of the Co_{3}^{—­} ions, thus causing more of the carbonate to dissolve to re-establish equilibrium, but it is also an unstable compound and breaks down into carbon dioxide and water.]

[Note 4:  Carbon dioxide is dissolved by cold water, but the gas is expelled by boiling, and, together with that which is distributed through the apparatus, is swept out into the absorption bulb by the current of air.  This air is purified by drawing it through the tube (K) containing soda lime, which removes any carbon dioxide which may be in it.]

DETERMINATION OF LEAD, COPPER, IRON, AND ZINC IN BRASS

ELECTROLYTIC SEPARATIONS

!General Discussion!

When a direct current of electricity passes from one electrode to another through solutions of electrolytes, the individual ions present in these solutions tend to move toward the electrode of opposite electrical charge to that which each ion bears, and to be discharged by that electrode.  Whether or not such discharge actually occurs in the case of any particular ion depends upon the potential (voltage) of the current which is passing through the solution, since for each ion there is, under definite conditions, a minimum potential below which the discharge of the ion cannot be effected.  By taking advantage of differences in discharge-potentials, it is possible to effect separations of a number of the metallic ions by electrolysis, and at the same time to deposit the metals in forms which admit of direct weighing.  In this way the slower procedures of precipitation and filtration may frequently be avoided.  The following paragraphs present a brief statement of the fundamental principles and conditions underlying electro-analysis.

The total energy of an electric current as it passes through a solution is distributed among three factors, first, its potential, which is measured in volts, and corresponds to what is called “head” in a stream of water; second, current strength, which is measured in amperes, and corresponds to the volume of water passing a cross-section of a stream in a given time interval; and third, the resistance of the conducting medium, which is measured in ohms.  The relation between these three factors is expressed by Ohm’s law, namely, that !I = E/R!, when I is current strength, E potential, and R resistance.  It is plain that, for a constant resistance, the strength of the current and its potential are mutually and directly interdependent.

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