Procedure.—Weigh out two portions of the original powdered sample (not the dried sample), of about 5 grams each, into 250 cc. casseroles, and cover each with a watch-glass (Note 1). Pour over the powder 25 cc. of water, and then add 50 cc. of dilute hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.12) in small portions, warming gently, until nothing further appears to dissolve (Note 2). Evaporate to dryness on the water bath. Pour over the residue a mixture of 5 cc. of water and 5 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.2) and again evaporate to dryness, and finally heat for at least an hour at a temperature of 110 deg.C. Pour over this residue 50 cc. of dilute hydrochloric acid (one volume acid (sp. gr. 1.12) to five volumes water), and boil for about five minutes; then filter and wash twice with the dilute hydrochloric acid, and then with hot water until free from chlorides. Transfer the filter and contents to a porcelain crucible, dry carefully over a low flame, and ignite to constant weight. The residue represents the insoluble matter and the silica from any soluble silicates (Note 3).
Calculate the combined percentage of these in the limestone.
[Note 1: The relatively large weight (5 grams) taken for analysis insures greater accuracy in the determination of the ingredients which are present in small proportions, and is also more likely to be a representative sample of the material analyzed.]
[Note 2: It is plain that the amount of the insoluble residue and also its character will often depend upon the strength of acid used for solution of the limestone. It cannot, therefore, be regarded as representing any well-defined constituent, and its determination is essentially empirical.]
[Note 3: It is probable that some of the silicates present are wholly or partly decomposed by the acid, and the soluble silicic acid must be converted by evaporation to dryness, and heating, into white, insoluble silica. This change is not complete after one evaporation. The heating at a temperature somewhat higher than that of the water bath for a short time tends to leave the silica in the form of a powder, which promotes subsequent filtration. The siliceous residue is washed first with dilute acid to prevent hydrolytic changes, which would result in the formation of appreciable quantities of insoluble basic iron or aluminium salts on the filter when washing with hot water.
If it is desired to determine the percentage of silica separately, the ignited residue should be mixed in a platinum crucible with about six times its weight of anhydrous sodium carbonate, and the procedure given on page 151 should be followed. The filtrate from the silica is then added to the main filtrate from the insoluble residue.]