[Note 2: Unless proper precautions are taken to insure the correct concentrations of acid the copper will not precipitate quantitatively on the aluminium foil; hence care must be taken to follow directions carefully at this point. Lead and silver have been almost completely removed as sulphate and chloride respectively, or they too would be precipitated on the aluminium. Bismuth, though precipitated on aluminium, has no effect on the analysis. Arsenic and antimony precipitate on aluminium and would interfere with the titration if allowed to remain in the lower state of oxidation.]
[Note 3: Bromine is added to oxidize arsenious and antimonious compounds from the original sample, and to oxidize nitrous acid formed by the action of nitric acid on copper and copper sulphide.]
[Note 4: This reaction can be carried out in the presence of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids as well as acetic acid, but in the presence of these strong acids arsenic and antimonic acids may react with the hydriodic acid produced with the liberation of free iodine, thereby reversing the process and introducing an error.]
DETERMINATION OF ANTIMONY IN STIBNITE
Stibnite is native antimony sulphide. Nearly pure samples of this mineral are easily obtainable and should be used for practice, since many impurities, notably iron, seriously interfere with the accurate determination of the antimony by iodometric methods. It is, moreover, essential that the directions with respect to amounts of reagents employed and concentration of solutions should be followed closely.
Procedure.—Grind the mineral with great care, and weigh out two portions of 0.35-0.40 gram into small, dry beakers (100 cc.). Cover the beakers and pour over the stibnite 5 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.20) and warm gently on the water bath (Note 1). When the residue is white, add to each beaker 2 grams of powdered tartaric acid (Note 2). Warm the solution on the water bath for ten minutes longer, dilute the solution very cautiously by adding water in portions of 5 cc., stopping if the solution turns red. It is possible that no coloration will appear, in which case cautiously continue the dilution to 125 cc. If a red precipitate or coloration does appear, warm the solution until it is colorless, and again dilute cautiously to a total volume of 125 cc. and boil for a minute (Note 3).
If a white precipitate of the oxychloride separates during dilution (which should not occur if the directions are followed), it is best to discard the determination and to start anew.
Carefully neutralize most of the acid with ammonium hydroxide solution (sp. gr. 0.96), but leave it distinctly acid (Note 4). Dissolve 3 grams of sodium bicarbonate in 200 cc. of water in a 500 cc. beaker, and pour the cold solution of the antimony chloride into this, avoiding loss by effervescence. Make sure that the solution contains an excess of the bicarbonate, and then add 1 cc. or 2 cc. of starch solution and titrate with iodine solution to the appearance of the blue, avoiding excess (Notes 5 and 6).