Forgot your password?  

Resources for students & teachers

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 188 pages of information about An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis.

[Note 3:  Attention has already been called to the fact that the color changes in the different indicators occur at varying concentrations of H^{+} or Oh^{-} ions.  They do not indicate exact theoretical neutrality, but a particular indicator always shows its color change at a particular concentration of H^{+} or Oh^{-} ions.  The results of titration with a given indicator are, therefore, comparable.  As a matter of fact, a small error is involved in the procedure as outlined above.  The comparison of the acid and alkali solutions was made, using methyl orange as an indicator, while the titration of the oxalic acid is made with the use of phenolphthalein.  For our present purposes the small error may be neglected but, if time permits, the student is recommended to standardize the alkali solution against one of the substances named in Note 1, page 41, and also to ascertain the comparative value of the acid and alkali solutions, using phenolphthalein as indicator throughout, and conducting the titrations as described above.  This will insure complete accuracy.]



In the oxidation processes of volumetric analysis standard solutions of oxidizing agents and of reducing agents take the place of the acid and alkali solutions of the neutralization processes already studied.  Just as an acid solution was the principal reagent in alkalimetry, and the alkali solution used only to make certain of the end-point, the solution of the oxidizing agent is the principal reagent for the titration of substances exerting a reducing action.  It is, in general, true that oxidizable substances are determined by !direct! titration, while oxidizing substances are determined by !indirect! titration.

The important oxidizing agents employed in volumetric solutions are potassium bichromate, potassium permangenate, potassium ferricyanide, iodine, ferric chloride, and sodium hypochlorite.

The important reducing agents which are used in the form of standard solutions are ferrous sulphate (or ferrous ammonium sulphate), oxalic acid, sodium thiosulphate, stannous chloride, arsenious acid, and potassium cyanide.  Other reducing agents, as sulphurous acid, sulphureted hydrogen, and zinc (nascent hydrogen), may take part in the processes, but not as standard solutions.

The most important combinations among the foregoing are:  Potassium bichromate and ferrous salts; potassium permanganate and ferrous salts; potassium permanganate and oxalic acid, or its derivatives; iodine and sodium thiosulphate; hypochlorites and arsenious acid.


Ferrous salts may be promptly and completely oxidized to ferric salts, even in cold solution, by the addition of potassium bichromate, provided sufficient acid is present to hold in solution the ferric and chromic compounds which are formed.

Follow Us on Facebook