*Project Gutenberg*. Public domain.

(The reactions necessary for the solution of these
problems are either stated with the problem or may
be found in the earlier text. In the calculations
from which the answers are derived, the atomic weights
given on page 195 have been employed, using, however,
only the first decimal but increasing this by 1 when
the second decimal is 5 or above. Thus, 39.1
has been taken as the atomic weight of potassium,
32.1 for sulphur, *etc*. This has been done
merely to secure uniformity of treatment, and the
student should remember that it is always well to
take into account the degree of accuracy desired in
a particular instance in determining the number of
decimal places to retain. Four-place logarithms
were employed in the calculations. Where four
figures are given in the answer, the last figure may
vary by one or (rarely) by two units, according to
the method by which the problem is solved.)

## VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS

1. How many grams of pure potassium hydroxide are required for exactly 1 liter of normal alkali solution?

!Answer!: 56.1 grams.

2. Calculate the equivalent in grams (a) of sulphuric acid as an acid; (b) of hydrochloric acid as an acid; (c) of oxalic acid as an acid; (d) of nitric acid as an acid.

!Answers!: (a) 49.05; (b) 36.5; (c) 63; (d) 63.

3. Calculate the equivalent in grams of (a) potassium hydroxide; (b) of sodium carbonate; (c) of barium hydroxide; (d) of sodium bicarbonate when titrated with an acid.

!Answers!: (a) 56.1; (b) 53.8; (c) 85.7; (d) 84.

4. What is the equivalent in grams of Na_{2}HPO_{4} (a) as a phosphate; (b) as a sodium salt?

!Answers!: (a) 47.33; (b) 71.0.

5. A sample of aqueous hydrochloric acid has a specific gravity of 1.12 and contains 23.81 per cent hydrochloric acid by weight. Calculate the grams and the milliequivalents of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in each cubic centimeter of the aqueous acid.

!Answers!: 0.2667 gram; 7.307 milliequivalents.

6. How many cubic centimeters of hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.20 containing 39.80 per cent HCl by weight) are required to furnish 36.45 grams of the gaseous compound?

!Answer!: 76.33 cc.

7. A given solution contains 0.1063 equivalents of hydrochloric acid in 976 cc. What is its normal value?

!Answer!: 0.1089 N.

8. In standardizing a hydrochloric acid solution it is found that 47.26 cc. of hydrochloric acid are exactly equivalent to 1.216 grams of pure sodium carbonate, using methyl orange as an indicator. What is the normal value of the hydrochloric acid?

!Answer!: 0.4855 N.

9. Convert 42.75 cc. of 0.5162 normal hydrochloric acid to the equivalent volume of normal hydrochloric acid.

!Answer!: 22.07 cc.

10. A solution containing 25.27 cc. of 0.1065 normal hydrochloric acid is added to one containing 92.21 cc. of 0.5431 normal sulphuric acid and 50 cc. of exactly normal potassium hydroxide added from a pipette. Is the solution acid or alkaline? How many cubic centimeters of 0.1 normal acid or alkali must be added to exactly neutralize the solution?