[Note 3: It has been shown by Hillebrand that silicic acid cannot be completely dehydrated by a single evaporation and heating, nor by several such treatments, unless an intermediate filtration of the silica occurs. If, however, the silica is removed and the filtrates are again evaporated and the residue heated, the amount of silica remaining in solution is usually negligible, although several evaporations and filtrations are required with some silicates to insure absolute accuracy.
It is probable that temperatures above 100 deg.C. are not absolutely necessary to dehydrate the silica; but it is recommended, as tending to leave the silica in a better condition for filtration than when the lower temperature of the water bath is used. This, and many other points in the analysis of silicates, are fully discussed by Dr. Hillebrand in the admirable monograph on “The Analysis of Silicate and Carbonate Rocks,” Bulletin No. 700 of the United States Geological Survey.
The double evaporation and filtration spoken of above are essential because of the relatively large amount of alkali salts (sodium chloride) present after evaporation. For the highest accuracy in the determination of silica, or of iron and alumina, it is also necessary to examine for silica the precipitate produced in the filtrate by ammonium hydroxide by fusing it with acid potassium sulphate and solution of the fused mass in water. The insoluble silica is filtered, washed, and weighed, and the weight added to the weight of silica previously obtained.]
[Note 4: Aluminium and iron are likely to be thrown down as basic salts from hot, very dilute solutions of their chlorides, as a result of hydrolysis. If the silica were washed only with hot water, the solution of these chlorides remaining in the filter after the passage of the original filtrate would gradually become so dilute as to throw down basic salts within the pores of the filter, which would remain with the silica. To avoid this, an acid wash-water is used until the aluminium and iron are practically removed. The acid is then removed by water.]
IGNITION AND TESTING OF SILICA
Procedure.—Transfer the two washed filters belonging to each determination to a platinum crucible, which need not be previously weighed, and burn off the filter (Note 1). Ignite for thirty minutes over the blast lamp with the cover on the crucible, and then for periods of ten minutes, until the weight is constant.
When a constant weight has been obtained, pour into the crucible about 3 cc. of water, and then 3 cc. of hydrofluoric acid. !This must be done in a hood with a good draft and great care must be taken not to come into contact with the acid or to inhale its fumes (Note 2!).
If the precipitate has dissolved in this quantity of acid, add two drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, and heat very slowly (always under the hood) until all the liquid has evaporated, finally igniting to redness. Cool in a desiccator, and weigh the crucible and residue. Deduct this weight from the previous weight of crucible and impure silica, and from the difference calculate the percentage of silica in the sample (Note 3).