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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 744 pages of information about An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, Volume 1.

Not more than ten settlers had been able to erect dwellings better than log-huts, which are neither warm nor durable.  Better, indeed, could hardly be expected, when it was considered how much their labour and attention must have been employed in raising food for their families, and in procuring such articles of accommodation as they needed.  Many, however, of this as well as of other descriptions were building comfortable framed and weather-boarded habitations at their own expense.

Of schools there were two, viz one for young children, who were instructed by a woman of good character; and the other kept by a man, who taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, for which he was well qualified, and was very attentive.  A third institution on a permanent footing was added, for the reception of such orphan female children as had lost or been deserted by their parents.  Most of these were of such an age as to require a strict hand and careful eye over them.  Unfortunately they, as well as the other children, were destitute of every article of clothing, except such as the store afforded, which was by no means calculated for children in that warm climate.  By the application of fines imposed for breaches of the peace, etc. and a subscription raised among the officers, the orphan children had for some time past been clothed, and about twenty-eight pounds remained to be applied in the same manner.

HOURS OF LABOUR

To explain this article, it will be necessary to state the different descriptions that compose the inhabitants; to do which in a perspicuous form the following classification has been adopted: 

Class Description Numbers By whom
          
                                                 supported
------------------------------------------------------------
--------- 1st Civil and military 83 government

2nd Settlers, by grant or lease, and freemen who
        are under-tenants to the settler 104 labour
        Freemen who are hired by the year, etc or
        who hire themselves out daily 138 ditto
        Convicts who are taken off the stores by
        officers, etc 5 ditto
3rd Ditto assigned to officers, etc 67 government
4th Ditto employed as overseers, artificers,
        watchmen, etc for the public benefit, many
        of whom are invalids 106 ditto
        Ditto cultivating ground for the public use,
        and other incidental work 30 ditto

Total males 533

5th Women belonging to civil and military, and
        at public labour 40 ditto
        Ditto, who belong to the second class of men 125 labour
6th Children belonging to the first and fourth
        classes 116 government
        Ditto to the second and third classes 73 labour

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