Along with the work of Bernal Diaz, and in the
history of Mexico by
Clavigero, there are representations of ancient Mexican temples. In
both they consist of six frustums of truncated pyramids, placed above
each other, having a gallery or open walk around at each junction, and
straight outside stairs reaching between each gallery, not unlike the
representations that have been ideally formed of the tower of
 Clavigero pretends that the defeat and death of
Escalante were known
to Cortes and his followers while at Cholula. This is highly
improbable, both from the narrative of Diaz, and because Cortes would
not certainly have put himself entirely in the power of Montezuma,
after this unequivocal demonstration of resolute enmity.—E.
 In the original of Diaz they are said to have
retreated to Almeria,
but this is an obvious mistake. Almeria, according to Clavigero, II.
55, was the name given by the Spaniards to Nauhtlan, a city on the
coast of the Gulf of Mexico, thirty-six miles north of Villa Rica,
which was governed by Quauhpopoca for Montezuma, and by whom the
Mexican detachment was commanded by which Escalente was defeated.—E.
 It is obvious from a circumstance in the sequel
of this story that
Diaz and other soldiers attended Cortes on this occasion. Clavigero,
II. 77. says there were twenty-five soldiers besides the five captains,
who repaired two by two to the palace, and joined Cortes there as if
by accident. This daring transaction took place eight days after the
arrival of Cortes in the city of Mexico.—E.
 Diaz calls this Tuzapan; but as Nauhtlan was in
the country of the
Totonacas, called Totonacapan by the Mexicans, we have chosen here and
everywhere else that this could be done with certainty, to adopt the
orthography of Clavigero.—E.
 According to Clavigero, II. 82. Quauhpopoca,
his son, and fifteen
other nobles were cruelly put to death on this occasion. Diaz names
the principal chief Quetzalpopoca.—E.
 Diaz says that he assumed the name of Don Carlos
on this occasion; but
does not allege even that he had been baptised. This name was probably
merely imposed upon him by the Spanish soldiery; or he may have
acquired it on becoming a Christian after the conquest of Mexico was
 It is impossible now to say what were these jewels
so much valued by
the Mexicans. Clavigero, I. 422, enumerates among their precious
stones, “Emeralds, amethysts, cornelians, turquoises, and others not
known in Europe.” In another passage, I. 424, he mentions many small
red stones similar to rubies, as among the Mexican curiosities
transmitted to Charles V. by Cortes.—E.