The rank of serjeant major in the Spanish service
appears to answer
to our adjutant, as applied to a battalion: On the present occasion
Carvajal may be considered as adjutant general under Vaca de Castro.
Maestre de Campo seems equivalent to Major-General.—E.
 Garcilasso, himself a mestee, says that Don Diego
was the bravest
Mestizo, or son of a Spaniard by an Indian woman, that ever the New
 According to Garcilasso, of 1500 combatants,
including both sides,
500 men were slain, and about an equal number wounded; the royalists
having 500 killed and 400 wounded, while the rebels had only 200 slain
and 100 wounded. In this estimate he has surely made a material error,
as he makes the killed and wounded of the royalists equal to the whole
number thay had in the field.—E.
 At this place, a naked list of a great number
of names of those who
signalized themselves in the battle, are enumerated by Zarate, but
omitted here as altogether uninteresting.—E.
 This appears to countenance the account of Garcilasso
in a former
note, who probably quoted from Zarate; but the latter does not limit
this number to the royal troops.—E.
 Obviously a misunderstood description of alligators.
Indeed the whole
account of this country, now called Colona, seems to have been derived
from the reports of Indians, and is in many circumstances entirely
fabulous, as is well known from the more recent accounts of the Jesuit
 Carabaya is an elevated valley of considerable
extent, to the south
east of Cuzco. A mark of gold or eight ounces is worth about L.32;
hence we may readily believe so rich a days work was seldom made.—E.
Commencement of the Viceroyalty of Blasco Nunnez Vela, and renewal of the civil war in Peru by the usurpation of Gonzalo Pizarro.
At this period, some of the clergy who had been in the New World, represented to the Emperor Don Carlos and the lords of his council, that the Spaniards treated the natives in the conquered provinces of America with extreme cruelty, depriving them of all their property by excessive exactions, forcing them to labour in the mines and to dive for pearls beyond their strength, obliging them to carry heavy burdens in long journeys, and frequently subjecting them to arbitrary punishments, and even wantonly putting them to death; insomuch that their numbers were fast diminishing, and that in a short time they would be entirely extirpated from Mexico and Peru and the other continental dominions of Spain in America, as was already the case in the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Porto Rico, Jamaica, and others, where hardly any trace remained of the