Both the marquis and the president were so brave and so experienced in the manner of making war with the Indians, that either of them alone would never hesitate when on horseback and armed to charge through a hundred Indians. Both were extremely intelligent, sensible, and judicious, and could take their measures both in civil and military affairs with great promptitude and propriety; yet both were so extremely illiterate that neither of them could read or write, or even sign their names; which assuredly was a great defect, and exceedingly inconvenient in carrying on the important affairs in which they were concerned; and although they in every other respect appeared like persons of high birth, and deported themselves like noblemen with much dignity and propriety, yet their entire ignorance of letters was an evident demonstration of the meanness of their birth. The marquis placed implicit confidence in his servants and friends, insomuch that in all his dispatches and orders relative to the government, and in the assignments of lands and Indians, he only made two lines with the pen, between which Antonio Picado his secretary wrote his name, Francisco Pizarro. As Ovid said of Romulus, respecting astronomy, we may say of Pizarro that he was more learned in the art of war than in the sciences, and applied himself more to know how to atchieve glorious conquests than to acquire literature. Both were exceedingly affable and familiar with the colonists, making them frequent visits, and they readily accepted invitations to dinner from any one; yet both were extremely moderate in eating and drinking; and both refrained from amorous connection with Spanish women, on the principle that to intrigue with the wives or daughters of their countrymen was both prejudicial and dishonourable to their neighbours. Almagro was the most continent in regard to the Peruvian women, as we know of no affairs of his gallantry in that country, his only son being born of an Indian woman of Panama. But the marquis had more than one attachment in Peru, having lived publickly with a sister of Atahualpa, by whom he had a son named Don Gonzalo who died at fourteen years of age, and a daughter named Donna Francisca. By another Indian woman of Cuzco he had a son named Don Francisco.
Both Pizarro and Almagro received high rewards from his majesty for their signal services; the former being created a marquis, with the authority of governor of New Castille, and the order of St Jago. Almagro was rewarded with the government of New Toledo, with the title of President or Lord Lieutenant of that country. The marquis always evinced the highest respect for his majesty, the utmost zeal for his service, and the most perfect obedience for his orders; insomuch that he would often refrain from doing many things which were evidently within the scope of his authority, lest he should appear to overstep the bounds of his commission. Frequently, when sitting in the meeting-houses