Is the whole cliff, or mass of strata in sight, of uniform composition? or does it consist of different kinds of stone?
If the strata be different, what is the order in which they are placed above each other successively?
10. A label, distinctly written, should accompany every specimen, stating its native place, its relative situation, etc., etc. And these labels should be connected with the specimens immediately, on the spot where they are found. This injunction may appear to be superfluous; but so much valuable information has been lost to geology from the neglect of it, that every observer of experience will acknowledge its necessity; and it is, perhaps, in practice one of the most difficult to adhere to.
11. A sketch of a coast or cliff, however slight, frequently conveys more information respecting the disposition and relations of rocks, than the longest memorandum. If numbers, denoting the situation of the specimens collected, be marked upon such sketches, much time may be saved at the moment of collecting. But in all such cases, the memorandum should be looked over soon afterwards, and labels distinctly explaining their situation, etc., be attached to the specimens themselves.
12. The specimens should be so packed, that the surfaces may be defended from exposure to air, moisture, and friction: for which purpose, if strong paper cannot be obtained, dry moss, or straw, or leaves, may be used with advantage. Where paper is used for wrapping the specimens, they are best secured by fastening the envelope with sealing-wax.
Lastly, The collector must not be discouraged, nor be prevented from collecting, by finding that the place which he may chance to visit in a remote situation, has not a striking appearance, or the rocks within his view a very interesting character; since it frequently, and even commonly, happens, that facts and specimens, in themselves of very little importance, become valuable by subsequent comparison; so that scarcely any observation, if recorded with accuracy, will be thrown away.
The Instruments required by the geological traveller will vary, according to the acquirements and specific objects of the individual. The most essential are:
The Hammer (Sketch 5); which, for general purposes, may be of the form here represented:
The head should be of steel well tempered, about 4 inches from the face to the edge, and 1 1/4 inch square in the middle; the face flat, and square, or nearly so; the edge placed in the direction of the handle. The orifice for the insertion of the handle oval, a very little wider on the outer side than within; its diameters, about 1 inch vertically, and 0.7 across; the centre somewhat more than 1 1/2 inch from the face. The handle should be of ash, or other tough wood; not less than 16 inches long; fitting tight into the head at its insertion, without a shoulder; and increasing a little in size towards the end remote from the head, to prevent its slipping. It should be fixed in the head by means of a thin, barbed iron wedge.