Fruit Trees, the Pruning of.—Cut away all growths that have an inward tendency, and do not allow any shoot to cross over or come in contact with another; also keep the centres of the trees or bushes open. The fruit of trees thus treated is not so liable to be blown down by the wind, and the sun can more readily ripen it. If the ground is poor a dressing of rotted manure worked into the soil will be beneficial to the roots.
Fuchsias.—These like a warm and moist atmosphere. The hardy sorts do well out of doors in rich, light soil. On the approach of frost cut them down and cover the roots with 3 or 4 in. of coal dust, ashes, or moss. Remove the ashes in April and thin out the shoots in May. They will also grow well from cuttings taken off the old wood as soon as they are 1 in. long, inserted in sand and placed under glass, or plunged in dung at a temperature of 60 degrees. Cuttings will also strike in loam and leaf-mould. If grown in pots, take them indoors before the frosty weather begins, and give them very little or no water at all during the winter. Keep them in a cool place, yet free from frost. Re-pot them in the spring, trimming the branches and roots, and making a compost for them of one-half mellow yellow loam, one quarter leaf-mould, and one quarter old manure. Place them in a frame with bottom-heat, and water and syringe them moderately while they are growing. When they are in full growth never give them plain water, but always plenty of liquid manure.
Funkia.—Ornamental plants which delight in a deep, light soil and a warm, moist situation, without which they will not flower. They are increased by division (which should not be too severe) and bloom in July and August. Height, 1 1/2 ft.
Furze.—Enjoys a sandy soil. Increased by cuttings taken in spring or autumn and placed in a shady border under hand-glasses. It is of evergreen habit, and forms a dense and highly ornamental hedge. (See also “Ulex.”)
Gages.—The cultivation of Gages is similar to that of Plums. In the open they may be grown as dwarfs or pyramids, and in orchard-houses as gridirons, cordons, or in pots. The chief points to observe are to thin the branches in order to admit plenty of light into the middle of the tree, thus inducing the production of a plentiful supply of fruit spurs, and to occasionally lift and root-prune the tree if growing too strong. Among the choicest sorts are: Bonne Bouche (producing its fruit at the end of August), Coe’s Golden Drop (end of September), Old Green Gage (August), Guthrie’s Late Green Gage (September), M’Laughlin’s Gage (end of August), Oullin’s Golden Gage (end of August), and Reine Claude de Bavay (beginning of October).
Gaillardia (Blanket Flower).—Very ornamental flowers, which will grow in any common soil, but thrive most in a light, rich one. Seeds of the annual kinds are sown in the spring. The perennials are increased by dividing the roots. Bloom in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.