Violas.—The hardy perennials are suitable for the front of flower borders or rock-work, but the smaller species succeed best when grown in pots in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. The herbaceous kinds are increased by seed or division of the roots, the shrubby varieties by cuttings planted under glass, and the annuals by seed sown in the open in spring. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.
Violets.—Plant the runners or off-sets in May in loam and leaf-mould, choosing a damp, shady situation. Russian and Neapolitan Violets may be made to flower throughout the winter and early spring by placing them in a stove or warm pit. Dog-toothed Violets will grow in any light soil. Autumn is the best time to plant them, and 1 in. of silver sand round the roots prevents decay; they are hardy and early, but will not bloom unless planted 9 in. deep. White Violets like a chalky soil. One of the best manures for Violets is the ash from bonfires. They may be multiplied to any extent by pegging down the side-shoots in April. The common Violet flowers in March and April. Height, 6 in.
Virgilia.—For the most part greenhouse shrubs, requiring to be grown in a compost of loam, peat, and sand. Young cuttings planted in sandy loam and covered with glass will strike. The hardy kinds, such as V. Lutea, grow in any light soil, and are increased by laying down shoots in autumn or spring. July is the month in which they flower. Height, from 2 ft. to 12 ft.
Virginian Creeper (Ampelopsis Hederacea).—May be propagated by layers or cuttings, and will grow in any common garden soil. The plant is also known as the Five-leaved Ivy, is a rapid grower, and a favourite for covering unsightly walls.
Virginian Stock.—This pretty little hardy annual is readily raised from seed sown on a border in autumn or spring. It is not particular as to soil. Height, 9 in.
Virgin’s Bower.—See “Clematis.”
Viscaria Coeli Rosa (the Rose of Heaven).—Sow in April, or on a warm, dry, sheltered spot in September. Other varieties of Viscaria are graceful and effective in beds, masses, or lines, and only require the usual care bestowed upon hardy annuals. The flowers are produced in June and July. Height, 1 ft.
Vitis Heterophylla.—These vines are hardy, and will grow in any rich soil. They are propagated by cuttings, and also by layers. V. Purpureus has purple leaves, which are very effective. V. Coignettae, or the Chinese Vine, has very noble foliage.
Wahlenbergia.—The hardy perennial kinds thrive best in pots, the soil in which should be kept moist. The annuals, which are raised on a hotbed in March, may be planted out in May in a warm situation.