Gaston d’Orleans, Mem. pp. 89, 90.
 Jean de Saint-Bonnet, Seigneur de Thoiras. He was created Marshal of France in 1630, and was killed in Italy, in 1636.
 Ambroise, Marquis de Spinola, one of the most famous generals of the seventeenth century, was the representative of an illustrious house which was subsequently divided into several branches, some of whom established themselves in Italy, and others in Spain. The subject of our note placed himself at the head of nine thousand Italians, and commenced his military career in the Low Countries, where he distinguished himself by his extraordinary courage. The siege of Ostend having lasted so long as to weary the patience of the Archduke of Austria, he transferred the command of his troops to Spinola, by whom the place was carried in 1604. He was then appointed general of the Spanish armies in the Low Countries, and maintained his ground, although opposed to Maurice of Nassau, the most able general of his time. He rendered several other important services to the Emperor in the Palatinate, and took Breda in 1625. In 1630 he made himself master of the city and fortress of Casal; and shortly afterwards died from mortification at the ill requital of his services.
 Jules Mazarin, better known as Cardinal Mazarin, Prime Minister of France, was born at Piscina in the Abruzzi on the 14th of July 1602, and was of a noble Sicilian family. Having completed his studies in Italy and Spain, he attached himself to Cardinal Sacchetti, whom he followed to Lombardy, and was of great assistance to Cardinal Antonio Barbarini in concluding the peace of Quierasqua in 1631. The reputation which he acquired through this negotiation secured to him the friendship of Richelieu and the protection of Louis XIII; and in 1639 the former obtained for him the title of Papal Vice-Legate at Avignon, and subsequently a seat in the Conclave. Nor did his good offices end even here, as he entreated Louis to appoint him Councillor of State after his own demise, a request with which the King complied; and on the death of Louis XIII the Queen-Regent Anne of Austria confided to him the government of the kingdom. Mazarin died in 1661, leaving a fortune of 200,000,000 of francs to Armand Charles de la Porte de la Meilleraye, the husband of his niece Hortense Mancini.
 Sismondi, vol. xxiii. pp. 142, 143.
 Capefigue, vol. iv. pp. 301-314. Sismondi, vol. xxiii. pp. 152, 153.
 “Maitre Gonin” was a sobriquet applied by the Parisians to the Cardinal de Richelieu.
 Motteville, Mem. vol. i. pp. 372, 373. Brienne, Mem. vol. ii. p. 12. Sismondi, vol. xxiii. pp. 154, 155. Bassompierre, Mem. vol. in. pp. 275, 276. Gaston d’Orleans, Mem. pp. 91, 92. Le Vassor, vol. vi. pp. 538, 539. Capefigue, vol. iv. pp. 320-323.