4. Facsimile of an autograph
letter of the cardinal
de Richelieu to M. De Bassompierre
during his embassy in England
5. Facsimile of A letter to the Marechal de Bassompierre, signed by Louis XIII
6. Cardinal mazarin
Engraved by Hopwood.
7. George Villiers, first duke of Buckingham
Engraved by W. Greatbach. Painted by G. P. Harding from the Original by C. Jansens, in the Collection of the Earl of Clarendon.
8. Marquis de Cinq-Mars
Engraved by Langlois.
De Luynes resolves to compel the Queen-mother to remain at Blois—Treachery of Richelieu—The suspicions of Marie are aroused—Her apprehensions—She demands permission to remove to Monceaux, and is refused—She affects to resign herself to her fate—A royal correspondence—Vanity of the Duc d’Epernon—A Court broil—The Abbe Rucellai offers his services to Marie de Medicis—He attempts to win over the great nobles to her cause—He is compelled to quit the Court, and retires to Sedan—The Duc de Bouillon refuses to join the cabal—The Duc d’Epernon consents to aid the escape of the Queen-mother—The ministers become suspicious of the designs of Richelieu—He is ordered to retire to Coussay, and subsequently to Avignon—Tyranny of M. de Roissy—The Queen-mother resolves to demand a public trial—De Luynes affects to seek a reconciliation with the Prince de Conde—Firmness of the Queen-mother—The three Jesuits—Marie pledges herself not to leave Blois without the sanction of the King—False confidence of De Luynes—The malcontents are brought to trial—Weakness of the ministers—Political executions—Indignation of the people—The Princes resolve to liberate the Queen-mother.
It will be remembered that Marie de Medicis left the capital under a pledge from her son himself that she was at perfect liberty to change her place of abode whenever she should deem it expedient to do so; and that her sojourn at Blois was merely provisional, and intended as a temporary measure, to enable her to establish herself more commodiously in her own castle of Monceaux. Anxious for her absence, De Luynes had induced the King to consent to her wishes; but she had no sooner reached Blois than he determined that she should be compelled to remain there, as he dreaded her influence in a province of which she was the absolute mistress; and, accordingly, she had no sooner arrived in the fortress-palace on the Loire than he began to adopt the necessary measures for her detention. Within a week she was surrounded