Scientific American Supplement, No. 601, July 9, 1887 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 127 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement, No. 601, July 9, 1887.
President of the Royal Academy, of which the following is a description:  “In the center a figure representing the British empire sits enthroned, resting one hand on the sword of justice, and holding in the other the symbol of victorious rule.  A lion is seen on each side of the throne.  At the feet of the seated figure lies Mercury, the God of Commerce, the mainstay of our imperial strength, holding up in one hand a cup heaped with gold.  Opposite to him sits the Genius of Electricity and Steam.  Below, again, five shields, banded together, bear the names of the five parts of the globe, Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia, over which the empire extends.  On each side of the figure of Empire stand the personified elements of its greatness—­on the right (of the spectator), Industry and Agriculture; on the left, Science, Letters, and Art.  Above, the occasion of the celebration commemorated is expressed by two winged figures representing the year 1887 (the advancing figure) and the year 1837 (with averted head), holding each a wreath.  Where these wreaths interlock, the letters V.R.I. appear, and, over all, the words ‘In Commemoration.’”

The issue of both the new coins and the medal began on June 21, the day appointed for the celebration of her majesty’s jubilee.—­Illustrated London News.

[Illustration:  THE NEW BRITISH COINAGE AND JUBILEE MEDAL.

1.  Half Crown. 2 and 3.  Double Florin, reverse and obverse. 4.  Double Sovereign. 5.  Shilling. 6.  Sixpence. 7 and 8.  Jubilee Medal.]

* * * * *

BRICKS AND BRICKWORK.

[Footnote:  A recent lecture delivered at Carpenters’ Hall, London Wall, E.C.—­Building News.]

By Professor T. ROGER SMITH, F.R.I.B.A.

Timber, stone, earth, are the three materials most used by the builder in all parts of the world.  Where timber is very plentiful, as in Norway or Switzerland, it is freely used, even though other materials are obtainable, and seems to be preferred, notwithstanding the risk of fire which attends its use.  Where timber is scarce, and stone can be had, houses are built of stone.  Where there is no timber and no stone, they are built of earth—­sometimes in its natural state, sometimes made into bricks and sun-dried, but more often made into bricks and burned.

London is one of the places that occupies a spot which has long ceased to yield timber, and yields no stone, so we fall back on earth—­burnt into the form of bricks.  Brick was employed in remote antiquity.  The Egyptians, who were great and skillful builders, used it sometimes; and as we know from the book of Exodus, they employed the forced labor of the captives or tributaries whom they had in their power in the hard task of brick making; and some of their brick-built granaries and stores have been recently discovered near the site of the battle of Tel-el-Kebir.

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Scientific American Supplement, No. 601, July 9, 1887 from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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