1. Between 1830 and 1850 the rush of population into the West continued, but, instead of moving across the continent, most of the people settled in the states already in existence.
2. This was due to the effect of such improved means of communication as steamboats, railroads, canals, etc.
3. As a consequence, but six new states were admitted to the Union in twenty-nine years, and one of them was annexed (Texas).
4. The period is also noticeable for the number of foreigners who came to our shores.
5. After 1849 the existence of gold in California brought so many people to the Pacific coast that California became a state in 1850.
6. As population grew denser, and transportation was facilitated by the expansion of railroads and steamboats and canals, business opportunities were increased, and new markets were created.
7. Labor-saving and time-saving machines and appliances became more in demand than ever, and a long list of remarkable inventions and business aids appeared.
8. The South, owing to its own peculiar industrial and labor condition, was little benefited by all these improvements, and remained much the same as in 1800.
CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY, 1840-1860.
Number of immigrants.
No. of people in 1840. 17,000,000
U. S. 1850. 23,000,000
Movement New States Arkansas, 1836.
Westward .. Michigan, 1837. Free.
Florida, 1845. Slave.
Texas, 1845. Slave.
Iowa, 1846. Free.
Wisconsin, 1848. Free.
California, 1850. Free.
Minnesota, 1858. Free.
Oregon, 1859. Free.
New Mexico, 1850.
New Social and Business Conveniences.
General use of anthracite.
Number of patents.
The sewing machine.
Little affected by new industrial
Increase of the cotton area.