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John Bourne
This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 432 pages of information about A Catechism of the Steam Engine.
minute, with steam of 45 to 50 lbs. per square inch, with two hydraulic presses having 13 inch rams of 41 feet stroke, and force pumps 2 inches diameter and 6 inches stroke, presses 30 bales of cotton per hour.  One condensing engine with cylinder 56 inches diameter, 10 feet stroke, and making 15 strokes per minute with steam of 60 lbs. pressure per square inch, cut off at 1/4th of the stroke, supplied by six boilers, each 5 feet diameter, and 24 feet long, with a 22-inch double-return flue in each, and 198 square feet of fire grate, works a blast cylinder of 126 inches diameter, and 10 feet stroke, at 15 strokes per minute.  The pressure of the blast is 4 to 5 lbs. per square inch; the area of pipes 2300 square inches, and the engine blows four furnaces of 14 feet diameter, each making 100 tons of pig iron per week.  Two high pressure cylinders, each of 6 inches diameter and 18 inches stroke, making 60 to 80 strokes per minute, with steam of 60 Lbs. per square inch, lift two rams, each weighing 1000 lbs., five times in a minute, the leaders for the lift being 24 feet long.  One high pressure cylinder of 12 inches diameter and 5 feet stroke, making 20 strokes per minute, with steam of 60 to 70 lbs. pressure per square inch, lifts 6 buckets full of dredging per minute from a depth of 30 feet below the water, or lifts 10 buckets full of mud per minute from a depth of 18 feet below the water.

CHAPTER XII.

MANUFACTURE AND MANAGEMENT OF STEAM ENGINES.

CONSTRUCTION OF ENGINES.

700. Q.—­What are the qualities which should be possessed by the iron of which the cylinder of steam engines are made?

A.—­The general ambition in making cylinders is to make them sound and hard; but it is expedient also to make them tough, so as to approach as nearly as possible to the state of malleable iron.  This may be done by mixing in the furnace as many different kinds of iron as possible; and it may be set down as a general rule in iron founding, that the greater the number of the kinds of metal entering into the composition of any casting, the denser and tougher it will be.  The constituent atoms of the different kinds of iron appear to be of different sizes, and the mixture of different kinds maintains the toughness, while it adds to the density and cohesive power.  Hot blast iron was at one time generally believed to be weaker than cold blast iron, but it is now questioned whether it is not the stronger of the two.  The cohesive strength of unmixed iron is not in proportion to its specific gravity, and its elasticity and power to resist shocks appear to become greater as the specific gravity becomes less.  Nos. 3 and 4 are the strongest irons.  In most cases, iron melted in a cupola is not so strong as when remelted in an air furnace, and when run into green sand it is not reckoned so strong as when run

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