R. GALLICA.—The French, or Gallic Rose. Europe and Western Asia. This Rose forms a bushy shrub 2 feet to 3 feet high, and has been so long grown in British gardens that the date of its introduction has been lost in obscurity. It is doubtless the red Rose of ancient writers, but at present the flowers may be red, crimson, or white, and there are varieties of all intermediate shades. Several variegated or striped Roses belong here, including Gloria Mundi, a popular favourite often but erroneously grown under the name of York and Lancaster. They all flower in June and July, and, together with other kinds that flower about the same time, are generally known as summer or old-fashioned garden Roses.
R. HEMISPHAERICA (syn R. sulphurea).—Orient, 1629. A bushy plant growing from 4 feet to 6 feet high, and bearing large double yellow flowers.
R. INDICA.—Common China, or Monthly Rose. Introduced from China, near Canton, in 1789, but the native country is not known with certainty. The flowers of the plant when first introduced were red and generally semi-double, but the varieties now vary through all shades of blush, rose, and crimson, and the plant varies exceedingly in height, in its different forms 1 foot to 20 feet in height. The Monthly Roses form bushes generally about 2 feet high or a little over. The Noisette and Tea Roses, with several other more or less distinct types, belong here, but as most of them are well known and otherwise well cared for, it is unnecessary to dwell upon them in detail beyond the two varieties here given, and which should not be overlooked.
R. INDICA MINIMA (syn R. semperflorens minima, R. Lawrenceana, and R. minima).—Fairy, or Miniature Rose. China, 1810. A beautiful little Rose that rarely exceeds a height of 4 inches or 5 inches. The flowers are about the size of a half-crown, and somewhat after the York and Lancaster as regards colouring, though not, perhaps, so distinctly marked, and are produced in abundance. For the rock garden it is one of the most desirable, and being perfectly hardy still further adds to its value.
R. INDICA SEMPERFLORENS (syns R. bengalensis and R. diversifolia).—The Ever-flowering China Rose. China, 1789. A somewhat spreading bush, with slender branches, armed with curved prickles. Leaves composed of three or five leaflets, and tinted with purple. Flowers almost scentless, solitary, semi-double, and of a bright and showy crimson.
R. LUTEA (syn R. Eglanteria).—The Austrian Brier, or Yellow Eglantine. South Europe, 1596. This belongs to the Sweet Brier section, and is a bush of from 3 feet to 6 feet high, with shining dark-green leaves, and large, cup-shaped flowers that are yellow or sometimes tinged with reddish-brown within. The Scarlet Austrian Brier (R. lutea punicea) is a handsome variety, with the upper surface of the petals scarlet and the under surface yellow.