They all succeed best when planted in rather damp loam, and do not object to partial shade, the common species growing well even beneath the drip of large standard trees.
CHIMONANTHUS FRAGRANS.—Winter Flower. Japan, 1766. This Japanese shrub is certainly one of the most remarkable that could be brought under notice, the deliciously fragrant flowers being produced in abundance during the winter months, and while the plant is yet leafless. Being of slender growth, it is best suited for planting against a wall, the protection thus afforded being just what is wanted for the perfect development of the pretty flowers. C. fragrans grandiflora has larger and less fragrant flowers than the species, and is more common in cultivation.
CHIONANTHUS RETUSA.—China, 1852. This is not a very hardy species, and, being less ornamental than the American form, is not to be recommended for general planting.
C. VIRGINICA.—Fringe Tree. North America, 1736. A very ornamental, small-growing tree, with large deciduous leaves and pendent clusters of pure white flowers with long fringe-like petals, and from which the popular name has arisen. It is a charming tree, or rather shrub, in this country, for one rarely sees it more than 10 feet high, and one that, to do it justice, must have a cool and rather damp soil and a somewhat shady situation.
CHOISYA TERNATA.—Mexican Orange Flower. Mexico, 1825. A beautiful and distinct shrub that succeeds well in the south and west of England. The evergreen leaves are always fresh and beautiful, and of a dark shining green, while the sweetly-fragrant flowers are produced freely on the apices of last year’s wood. They have a singular resemblance to those of the orange, and on the Continent are commonly grown as a substitute for that popular flower. The plant succeeds well in any light, rich soil, and soon grows into a goodly-sized shrub of 4 feet or 5 feet in height. As a wall plant it succeeds well, but in warm, maritime situations it may be planted as a standard without fear of harm. Cuttings root freely if placed in slight heat.
CISTUS CRISPUS.—Portugal, 1656. This is a distinct species, with curled leaves, and large reddish-purple flowers. It is a valuable ornamental shrub, but, like the others, suffers from the effects of frost.
C. LADANIFERUS.—Gum Cistus. Spain, 1629. A pretty but rather tender shrub, growing in favourable situations to about 4 feet in height. It has lanceolate leaves that are glutinous above, and thickly covered with a whitish tomentum on the under sides, and large and showy vhite flowers with a conspicuous purple blotch at the base of each petal. Unless in southern and western England, but particularly on the sea-coast, this handsome Portuguese shrub is not to be depended on, in so far as hardihood is concerned.