CASSINIA FULVIDA (syn Diplopappus chrysophyllus).—New Zealand. This is a neat-growing and beautiful shrub, the rich yellow stems and under sides of the leaves imparting quite a tint of gold to the whole plant. The flowers are individually small, but the whole head, which is creamy-white, is very effective, and contrasts strangely with the golden sheen of this beautiful shrub. It is inclined to be of rather upright growth, is stout and bushy, and is readily increased from cuttings planted in sandy soil in the open border. Probably in the colder parts of the country this charming shrub might not prove perfectly hardy, but all over England and Ireland it seems to be quite at home. The flowers are produced for several months of the year, but are at their best about mid-November, thus rendering the shrub of still further value. It grows freely in sandy peaty soil of a light nature.
CASSIOPE FASTIGIATA (syn Andromeda fastigiata) and C. TETRAGONA (syn Andromeda tetragona) are small-growing species, only suitable for rock gardening—the former of neat upright habit, with large pinky-white bells all along the stems; and the latter of bushy growth, with square stems and small white flowers.
CASTANEA SATIVA (syn C. vesca and C. vulgaris).—Sweet Spanish Chestnut. Asia Minor. Few persons who have seen this tree as an isolated specimen and when in full flower would feel inclined to exclude it from our list. The long, cylindrical catkins, of a yellowish-green colour, are usually borne in such abundance that the tree is, during the month of June, one of particular interest and beauty. So common a tree needs no description, but it may be well to mention that there are several worthy varieties, and which flower almost equally well with the parent tree.
CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES.—Indian Bean. North America, 1798. When in full bloom this is a remarkable and highly ornamental tree, the curiously-marked flowers and unusually large, bronzy-tinted foliage being distinct from those of almost any other in cultivation. That it is not, perhaps, perfectly hardy in every part of the country is to be regretted, but the numerous fine old specimens that are to be met with all over the country point out that there need be little to fear when assigning this pretty and uncommon tree a position in our parks and gardens. The flowers, produced in spikes at the branch-tips, are white, tinged with violet and speckled with purple and yellow in the throat. Individually the flowers are of large size and very ornamental, and, being produced freely, give the tree a bright and pleasing appearance when at their best. Usually the tree attains to a height of 30 feet in this country, with rather crooked and ungainly branches, and large heart-shaped leaves that are downy beneath. It flourishes well on any free soil, and is an excellent smoke-resisting tree. C. bignonioides aurea is a decided variety, that differs mainly in the leaves being of a desirable golden tint.