The War and Democracy eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 414 pages of information about The War and Democracy.
by the people of the United Kingdom, for it may well be doubted whether any real popular control of foreign policy is possible until some such division of functions takes place.  One word in conclusion.  If it is true that domestic policy and foreign policy are separate functions of Government, it is also true that the domestic policy of a country in the long run determines its foreign policy.  International peace can never be attained between nations torn with internal dissensions; international justice will remain a dream so long as political parties and schools of thought dispute over the meaning of justice in domestic affairs.  A true ideal of peace must embrace the class struggle as well as international war.  If we desire a “Concert of Europe” which shall be based on true freedom and not on tyranny, it behoves us to realise our ideal first in England, and to raise our country itself above the political and social conflicts and hatreds which have formed so large and so sordid a part of our domestic history for the last decade.


It is difficult to give a list of books illustrating foreign policy in general.  The lists given in other chapters sufficiently illustrate the various problems with which foreign policy to-day has to deal.

The diplomacy of a century ago is well illustrated by the Diaries and Correspondence of the Earl of Malmesbury. 4 vols. 1844. (Out of print.) For the diplomacy of the middle of the nineteenth century, when the present national forces of Europe were being created, the following biographies are useful: 

Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, by Lane-Poole. 2 vols. 1888.

Life of Lord Granville, by Lord Fitzmaurice. 2 vols. 1905.

Life of Lord Clarendon, by Sir Herbert Maxwell. 2 vols. 1913.

Life of Lord Lyons, by Lord Newton. 2 vols. 1898.

Life of Cavour, by Roscoe Thayer. 2 vols. 1911.

Bismarck’s Reflections.

There are many studies of the diplomatic problems of the present day, but as they deal with history in the making they are to be read for the general survey they give of forces at work rather than as authoritative statements.  A very comprehensive survey of all the complexities of international politics will be found in Fullerton’s Problems of Power (1913). 7s. 6d. net.

The actual workings of diplomacy may best be seen in the “White Books” of diplomatic correspondence, periodically published by the Foreign Office, such, for instance, as the successive volumes of Correspondence Respecting the Affairs of Persia.  Perhaps the best idea of the actual labour of foreign relations can be gained by consulting such compilations as Hertslet’s Commercial Treaties—­23 vols. 1827-1905—­which are a record of work actually completed.

On the staffing of the Foreign Office and the Diplomatic Service, see the fifth Report of the Royal Commission on the Civil Service (Cd. 7748), just published (5-1/2 d.).

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The War and Democracy from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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