[Footnote 16: A Day-Dream.]
[Footnote 17: Biographia Literaria, Chapter XIV.]
[Footnote 18: Ibid., Chapter XXII.]
[Footnote 19: Manfred, Act I.]
[Footnote 20: Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto III.]
[Footnote 21: The Dream.]
[Footnote 22: Adonais, Stanza xlix]
[Footnote 23: Epipsychidion.]
[Footnote 24: Ode to the West Wind.]
[Footnote 25: For a discussion of the different sensory images of the poets, see the author’s Education of the Central Nervous System, pages 109-208.]
[Footnote 26: Sleep and Poetry.]
[Footnote 27: For full titles, see p. 50.]
[Footnote 28: For full titles, see p. 6.]
CHAPTER IX: THE VICTORIAN AGE, 1837-1900
History of the Period.—In the two periods of English history most remarkable for their accomplishment, the Elizabethan and the Victorian, the throne was occupied by women. Queen Victoria, the granddaughter of George III., ruled from 1837 to the beginning of 1901. Her long reign of sixty-three years may be said to close with the end of the nineteenth century.
For nearly fifty years after the battle of Waterloo (1815), England had no war of magnitude. In 1854 she joined France in a war against Russia to keep her from taking Constantinople. Tennyson’s well-known poem, The Charge of the Light Brigade, commemorates an incident in this bloody contest, which was successful in preventing Russia from dismembering Turkey.
When the Turks massacred the Christians in Bulgaria in 1876, Russia fought and conquered Turkey. England again intervened, this time after the war, in the Berlin Congress (1878). In return for her diplomatic services and for a guaranty to maintain the integrity of certain Turkish territory, England received from Turkey the island of Cyprus. As a result of this Congress, the principalities of Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria were formed, but the Turk was allowed to remain in Europe. A later English prime minister, Lord Salisbury (1830-1903), referring to England’s espousal of the Turkish cause, said that she had “backed the wrong horse.” The bloody war of 1912-1913 between Turkey and the allied armies of Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, and Greece was the result of this mistake.
An important part of England’s history during this period centers around the expansion, protection, and development of her colonies in Asia, Australia, Africa, and America. England was then constantly agitated by the fear that Russia might grow strong enough to seize India or some other English colonial possessions.
A serious rebellion in India (1857) led England to take from the East India Company the government of that colony. “Empress of India” was later (1876) added to the titles of Queen Victoria. Had India not been an English colony, literature might not have had Kipling’s fascinating Jungle Books and Hindu stories. England’s protectorate over Egypt (1882) was assumed in order to strengthen her control over the newly completed Suez Canal (1869), which was needed for her communication with India and her Australian colonies.