Having thus traced an outline of the revolutions of empire in Tartary, down to what may be considered as modern history, it is only necessary farther to mention, that all eastern Tartary and Mongalia is now subject to China, and Kipzac and all the northern to Russia. Hardly any part of it now remains independent, except Zagatai; or Transoxiana, Kharism, Candabar, and the deserts of Western Tartary: the former of which is subject to the Usbeks, and the latter to the Kirguses.
 Gibbon, Dec. and Fall, IV. 355.
 Decl. and Fall, XI. 402.
 Dashte Kipzak, or the plain of Kipzak, extended
sides of the Volga, towards the Jaik or Ural, and the Borysthenes or
Dnieper, and is supposed to have given name to the Cosacs.—Gibb.
 As reported by Gibbon, from Matthew Paris, p.
396, forty or
fifty herrings were sold for a shilling. This must be an error,
perhaps for 40 or 50 thousand; as a shilling of these days was worth
at least from fifteen to twenty modern shillings in effective value;
and within memory herrings have often sold, in a very plentiful
fishery, for a shilling the cart-load, when salt could not be had in
 Decl. and Fall. XII. I.
The Travels of John de Plano Carpini and other Friars, sent about the year 1246, as ambassadors from Pope Innocent IV, to the great Khan of the Moguls or Tartars.
In the collection of early Voyages, Travels, and Discoveries, by Hakluyt, published originally in 1599, and reprinted at London in 1809 with additions, there are two separate relations of these travels. The first, in p. 24, is the journal of John de Plano Carpini, an Italian minorite, who, accompanied by friar Benedict, a Polander, went in 1246 by the north of the Caspian sea, to the residence of Batu-khan, and thence to Kajuk-khan, whom he calls Cuyne, the chief or Emperor of all the Mongols. The second in p. 42, is a relation taken from the Speculum Historiale of Vincentius Beluacensis, lib. xxxii. ch. 2. of the mission of certain friars, predicants and minorites in the same year, 1246, to