Revolt of Arbogastes,—his usurpation
Victories of Theodosius over all his rivals; the Empire once
more united under a single man
Reforms of Theodosius; his jurisprudence
Patronage of the clergy and dignity of great ecclesiastics
Theodosius persecutes the Arians
Extinguishes Paganism and closes the temples
Cements the union of Church with State
Faults and errors of Theodosius; massacre of Thessalonica
Death of Theodosius
Division of the Empire between his two sons
Renewed incursions of the Goths,—Alaric; Stilicho
Fall of Rome; Genseric and the Vandals
Second sack of Rome
Reflections on the Fall of the Western Empire
Foundation of the papacy.
Leo the Great,—founder of the Catholic
General aim of the Catholic Church
The Church the guardian of spiritual principles
Theocratic aspirations of the Popes
Origin of ecclesiastical power; the early Popes
Primacy of the Bishop of Rome
Necessity for some higher claim after the fall of Rome
Early life of Leo
Elevation to the Papacy; his measures; his writings
His persecution of the Manicheans
Conservation of the Faith by Leo
Intercession with the barbaric kings; Leo’s intrepidity
Desolation of Rome
Designs and thoughts of Leo
The jus divinum principle; state of Rome when this principle
Its apparent necessity
The influence of arrogant pretensions on the barbarians
They are indorsed by the Emperor
The government of Leo
The central power of the Papacy
Unity of the Church
No rules of government laid down in the Scriptures
Governments the result of circumstances
The Papal government the need of the Middle Ages
The Papacy in its best period
Greatness of Leo’s character and aims
Fidelity of his early successors, and perversions of later Popes
The Conversion of Paula by St. Jerome.
After the painting by L. Alma-Tadema.
Archery Practice of a Persian King.
After the painting by F.A. Bridgman.
Tomyris Plunges the Head of the Dead Cyrus into a Vessel of Blood. After the painting by A. Zick.
From the bust in the National Museum, Rome.
Surrender of Vercingetorix, the Last Chief of Gaul.
After the painting by Henri Motte.
From a photograph of the statue at the Capitol, Rome.
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Arena.
After the painting by G. Mantegazza.
St. Jerome in His Cell.
After the painting by J.L. Gerome.