Subjugation of Porto Rico by Ponce de Leon; he later becomes governor of that island.
1510. Occupation of Goa by the Portuguese under Albuquerque, Governor of the Indies.
1511. Subjugation of Cuba by the Spaniards under Velasquez.
Malacca taken by the Portuguese; it becomes the centre of their trade in the East.
1512. War declared against France by Henry VIII of England.
Battle of Ravenna; victory of the French; their general, Gaston de Foix, falls on the field; the revolted cities of Italy submit. Lombardy evacuated by the French; restoration of the Sforza dynasty, and of the Medici in Florence.
1513. From the Isthmus of Panama Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean. See “BALBOA DISCOVERS THE PACIFIC,” viii, 381.
Invasion of France by Henry VIII; defeat of the French at Guinegate, “Battle of the Spurs”; Terouanne and Tournai taken by the English.
Battle of Flodden Field; the Scots, under James IV, having invaded England, are overwhelmed and their king slain.
Expulsion of the French from Italy.
Juan Ponce de Leon lands in Florida, in his search
for the “Fountain of
1514. Peace concluded with France and Scotland by Henry VIII of England.
Smolensko renounces its subjection to Poland and becomes part of Russia.
Ambassadors from Portugal present to Pope Leo X an elephant, a panther, with other animals and products of their new territories in the East.
1515. Wolsey created cardinal, papal legate, and lord chancellor.
Invasion of Italy by Francis I, who this year succeeded Louis XII as King of France; he recovers Genoa and Milan.
1516. Death of Ferdinand the Catholic; Charles, his eldest grandson, succeeds to the throne of Spain.
Publication of the Greek Testament, with a Latin translation, by Erasmus.
Conclusion of the treaty of “Perpetual Peace” between France and Switzerland.
Rise of the piratical power of the Barbarossas in Algiers.
[Footnote:1 Date uncertain.]