JOHN RUDD, LL.D. A.D. 1438-1516
Events treated at length are here indicated in large type; the numerals following give volume and page.
Separate chronologies of the various nations, and of the careers of famous persons, will be found in the INDEX VOLUME, with volume and page references showing where the several events are fully treated.
1438. Gutenberg commences printing with movable type. See “ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF PRINTING,” viii, i.
All Europe ravaged by the plague; it is aggravated in England and France by a direful famine.
1439. Death of Albert II; Ladislaus III, King of Poland, ascends the Hungarian throne.
Pope Eugenius removes his council from Ferrara to Florence; here is signed a treaty for the ostensible union of the Latin and Greek churches.
A standing army voted by the States-General of France.
1440. Frederick III elected Emperor of Germany.
“JOHN HUNYADY REPULSES THE TURKS.” See viii, 30.
1441. Hadji Kerai separates from the Golden Horde; he establishes the independent khanate of Crim Tartary, or the Crimea.
1442. Alfonso V of Aragon takes the city of Naples; the whole kingdom submits to him; his rival, Rene of Anjou, returns to Provence.
First modern importation of negro slaves into Europe. See “DISCOVERY OF THE CANARY ISLANDS AND THE AFRICAN COAST,” viii, 276.
1443. Rising of the Albanians, under Scanderbeg, against the Turks.
1444. Battle of Varna; defeat of the Hungarians by the Turks and death of Ladislaus III, King of Poland and Hungary. John Hunyady assumes the government in Hungary during the minority of Ladislaus Posthumus.
On the request of Frederick IV of Germany the Dauphin employs a part of the French army against Switzerland; battle of St. Jacob’s; for ten hours 1,600 Swiss resist 30,000 veterans; the Swiss perish; 10,000 of the victors are slain.
1445. Corinth destroyed by the Turks.
1447. Election of Pope Nicholas V, founder of the Vatican Library. See “REBUILDING OF ROME,” viii, 46.
Grammar-schools founded in London, England.
1448. Amurath II, or Murad, defeats Hunyady at Cassova.
1449. War between France and England renewed; Normandy conquered by the French; Rouen is surrendered.
1450. Rebellion of Jack Cade in England. He was slain and his head stuck on London bridge.
Milan surrenders to Francesco Sforza (Stormer, i. e., of cities), the natural son of a peasant who became a great condottiere. He is proclaimed duke.
1451. Guienne conquered by the French from the English. Ghent revolts against Philip, Duke of Burgundy.
1453. End of the Eastern empire. See “MAHOMET II TAKES CONSTANTINOPLE,” viii, 55.
Submission of Ghent to the Duke of Burgundy after its forces had been defeated at Gaveren.