Everything you need to understand or teach A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking.
Stephen W. Hawking writes about the history and present thinking of theoretical physicists in a manner the average person can understand. He begins with the earlier ways people understood the universe and moves to the present day, where many theories exist for specific pieces of the whole picture, but none of the theories cover the universe in its entirety.
Aristotle's thinking that everything is made up of only four elements and absolute position and time characterize the universe leads to Ptolemy's idea of heavenly spheres, both assuming the earth is at the center of the universe. Copernicus contributes the idea that the sun is the center, and Galileo concurs. Later observations with telescopes based on Galileo's early instrument reveal the true nature of the earth and the sun in relation to the universe, which grows much larger than the early conceptions. The earth indeed orbits the sun, but...
A Brief History of Time Lesson Plans contain 119 pages of teaching material, including: